In 1584, Giordano Bruno suggested that the stars were like the Sun, and may have other planets, possibly even Earth-like, in orbit around them, By the following century, the idea of the stars being the same as the Sun was reaching a consensus among astronomers.
The oldest accurately dated star chart was the result of ancient Egyptian astronomy in 1534 BC.
Medieval Islamic astronomers gave Arabic names to many stars that are still used today and they invented numerous astronomical instruments that could compute the positions of the stars.
Astronomers can determine the mass, age, metallicity (chemical composition), and many other properties of a star by observing its motion through space, its luminosity, and spectrum respectively.
The total mass of a star is the main factor that determines its evolution and eventual fate.
William Herschel was the first astronomer to attempt to determine the distribution of stars in the sky.